Schistosomiasis or bilharzia is one of the neglected tropical diseases affecting over 230 million people globally. In Zambia, the infection poses as one of the major public health burdens among parasitic infections. The diagnosis of schistosomiasis in endemic countries is still a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Schistosoma immunochromatographic (ICT) IgG–IgM rapid diagnostic test in the detection of schistosome infections from Schistosoma haematobium and mansoni in Siavonga district in Zambia.
The diagnostic performance of Schistosoma ICT IgG–IgM test was evaluated using 430 of the 440 participants’ samples which had complete data. The prevalence of S. haematobium and S. mansoni was 4.4% and 6%, respectively, while seroprevalence was 71.4%. The sensitivity and specificity of the Schistosoma ICT IgG–IgM test was found to be 100% and 32.2%, respectively. The associated positive predictive value was 13.8% and 100% for negative predictive value. Diagnostic accuracy [area under the curve (AUC)] was 0.57 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52, 0.62].
The Schistosoma ICT IgG–IgM proved to have remarkably high sensitivity with a fairly good specificity and diagnostic accuracy for the detection of both urinary and intestinal schistosomiasis. We therefore recommend the test as it is ideal for screening in the light of current focus of disease elimination in endemic countries.